The technology within the Plasco Conversion System is protected by two overall pending patent families worldwide and numerous pending patents on specific components. Click on the image below to view various pending patents related to the Plasco Gasification And Plasma Refining System and its components.
Plant for Gasification of Waste
A waste disposal system for gasification and melting of various waste materials such as solid waste, waste in a solid container, granular waste, and liquid waste, and mixtures thereof is provided. The system includes a reactor vessel which is closed to the atmosphere, and also includes a bottom portion capable of serving as a slag pool. An active feed mechanism eliminates the entry of air from the atmosphere into the vessel and also blocks the expulsion of by product gases into the atmosphere. The feed mechanism includes mechanisms to feed solid waste, waste in a solid container, granular waste and liquid waste into the reactor vessel. A plasma arc torch is located for plasma arc activity within said reactor vessel to produce a high temperature processing zone to gasify or melt solid waste, waste in a solid container, granular waste, and liquid waste and mixtures thereof as such waste is actively fed into the reactor vessel. In preferred embodiments a waste receiving reservoir is located within the vessel and positioned to initially receive and retain waste from the active feed mechanism for thermal decomposition and melting of the waste by the arc torch.
Multiple Plasma Generator Hazardous Waste Processing System
A waste processing system is provided herein which entails the use of at least one fixed-position plasma arc generator (36) for primary processing and at least one moveable plasma arc generator (38) for secondary processing assistance and/or final condition of the slag prior to exit from the reactor vessel. This optimum processing environment is provided by control of reactor vessel configuration and real time control of processing characteristics to ensure maximum processing efficiency.
A System for the Conversion of Carbonaceous Feedstocks to a Gas of a Specified Composition
A carbonaceous feedstock gasification system with integrated control subsystem is provided. The system generally comprises, in various combinations, a gasification reactor vessel (or converter) having one or more processing zones and one or more plasma heat sources, a solid residue handling subsystem, a gas quality conditioning subsystem, as well as an integrated control subsystem for managing the overall energetics of the conversion of the carbonaceous feedstock to energy, as well as maintaining all aspects of the gasification processes at an optimal set point. The gasification system may also optionally comprise a heat recovery subsystem and/or a product gas regulating subsystem.
A Control System for the Conversion of Carbonaceous Feedstock into Gas
A control system for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstock into a gas is provided. In particular, the control system is designed to be configurable for use in controlling one or more processes implemented in, and/or by, a gasification system for the conversion of such feedstock into a gas, which may be used for one or more downstream applications. Gasification processes controllable by different embodiments of the disclosed control system may include in various combinations, a converter, a residue conditioner, a recuperator and/or heat exchanger system, one or more gas conditioners, a gas homogenization system and one or more downstream applications.; The control system operatively controls various local, regional and/or global processes related to the overall gasification process, and thereby adjusts various control parameters thereof adapted to affect these processes for a selected result. Various sensing elements and response elements are therefore distributed throughout the controlled system and used to acquire various process, reactant and/or product characteristics, compare these characteristics to suitable ranges of such characteristics conducive to achieving the desired result, and respond by implementing changes to one or more of the ongoing processes via one or more controllable process devices.
A Low Temperature Gasification Facility with a Horizontally Oriented Gasifier
A low-temperature gasification system comprising a horizontally oriented gasifier is provided that optimizes the extraction of gaseous molecules from carbonaceous feedstock while minimizing waste heat. The system comprises a plurality of integrated subsystems that work together to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) into electricity. The subsystems comprised by the low-temperature gasification system are: a Municipal Solid Waste Handling System; a Plastics Handling System; a Horizontally Oriented Gasifier with Lateral Transfer Units System; a Gas Reformulating System; a Heat Recycling System; a Gas Conditioning System; a Residue Conditioning System; a Gas Homogenization System and a Control System.
A Horizontally-Oriented Gasifier with Lateral Transfer System
A method and apparatus is described for the efficient conversion of carbonaceous feedstock including municipal solid waste into a product gas through gasification. More specifically, a horizontally-oriented gasifier having one or more lateral transfer system for moving material through the gasifier is provided thereby allowing for the horizontal expansion of the gasification process such that there is sequential promotion of feedstock drying, volatization and char-to-ash conversions.
A Gas Homogenization System
A system and process for gas homogenization is provided. This has application in the areas of generation of gas and its conversion to electricity in downstream applications. The homogenization system minimizes variance in the gas characteristics (composition, flow, pressure, temperature), thereby rendering a steady stream of gas of consistent quality to the downstream machinery. This homogenization system can be adjusted to optimize the output gas stream for specific end-applications, or to optimize the output gas stream for different input feedstocks. This ensures that overall conversion efficiencies are maximised while keeping the process cost-effective.; Such a uniform, steady output gas stream has a wide range of applications in the broad areas of generation of electricity (e.g. using internal combustion engines and combustion turbine engines), chemical synthesis (e.g. of compounds such as ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons), fuel-cell technologies and in polygeneration processes (processes that result in co-production of electricity and synthetic fuels).
A Gas Conditioning System
A gas conditioning system for processing an input gas from a low temperature gasification system to an output gas of desired characteristics is provided. The system comprises a two-stage process, the first stage separating heavy metals and particulate matter in a dry phase, and the second stage including further processing steps of removing acid gases, and/or other contaminants. Optional processes include adjusting the humidity and temperature of the input gas as it passes through the gas conditioning system. The presence and sequence of processing steps is determined by the composition of the input gas, the desired composition of output gas for downstream applications, and by efficiency and waste minimization.
A Gas Reformulating System Using Plasma Torch Heat
A method and apparatus is described for reformulating of an input gas from a gasification reaction into a reformulated gas. More specifically, a gas reformulating system having a gas reformulating chamber, one or more plasma torches, one or more oxygen source(s) inputs and control system is provided thereby allowing for the conversion of an input gas from a gasification reaction into a gas of desired composition.
A Multi-Zone Carbon Conversion System with Plasma Melting
A multi-zone carbon converter for converting processed feedstock to syngas and slag is provided comprising a chamber comprising a carbon conversion zone in communication with a slag zone for melting ash into molten slag and/or for maintaining slag in a molten state by the application of plasma heat. The carbon conversion zone and the slag zone are separated by the inter-zonal region that comprises an impediment for restricting or limiting the movement of material between the two zones. The inter-zonal region may also provide for the initial melting of the ash into molten slag by affecting the transfer of plasma heat from the slag zone.
A Gas Reformulation System Comprising Means To Optimize The Effectiveness Of Gas Conversion
A system and method for efficient reformulation of an initial gas with associated characteristics into an output gas with desired characteristic parameters, within a substantially sealed, contained, and controlled environment is provided. The gas reformulating system uses a gas energizing field to disassociate the initial gas molecules and molecules of injected process additives of appropriate types and amounts, into their constituents that then recombine to form the output gas with the desired parameters. The gas reformulating system further comprises a control system that regulates the process and thereby enables the process to be optimized. The gas energizing field may be provided at least partly by hydrogen burners or plasma torches.
A Lateral Transfer System
A modular lateral transfer system for use in a horizontally oriented processing chamber is provided. Each module has the ability to deliver process gas in addition to moving the reactant material through the horizontally oriented processing chamber. The modular design enables the operator to remove and replace a module of the system, thereby substantially minimizing the downtime of the chamber required during servicing.
A Combined Conversion & Treatment Unit for the Conversion of a Feedstock into a Syngas
A Carbon Conversion System having four functional units, each unit comprising one or more zones, wherein the units are integrated to optimize the overall conversion of carbonaceous feedstock into syngas and slag is provided. The processes that occur within each zone of the system can be optimized, for example, by the configuration of each of the units and by managing the conditions that occur within each zone using an integrated control system.
The Integrated Conversion and Refining System (ICARS) is the heart of the Plasco conversion process. A complete EfW plant was built and operated to test ICARS and GQCS in commercial operating conditions. The following is a brief description of ICARS.
Manufactured for Plasco by experienced 3rd party manufacturer.
- The twin feeders add waste to system, while preventing air ingress.
- The Converter dries waste, removes volatiles at low temperatures, using recycled process heat
- The under grate ash is collected and returned to system to extract energy
Plasco Proprietary Grate System
- Carbon Recovery Vessel (CRV) converts fixed carbon to energetic syngas while heating inorganics to melting point. They exit the bottom of the CRV towards the Solid Residue Melter (SRM)
- The SRM superheats melted ash and provides enriched preheated air to bottom of CRV. When cooled quickly, it is vitrified and nonleachable, suitable for value-added products.
- The CRV plenum collects syngas from the converter and CRV and sends it through cyclones, where particulate is removed to about 3 microns in size.
- Particulate from cyclones, the bottom grate, and the Gas Quality Control Suite (GQCS) is reintroduced into the CRV. There is no fly ash.
Process Highlights of Plasco ICARS
- The refining mixer provides turbulent mixing of syngas and preheated air or oxygen, and then exposes syngas to plasma plume. Plasma is used for refining and catalysis to crack tars, not as a primary heat source.
- Syngas leaving the mixer is held for 5 seconds in the refining chamber to complete cracking reactions, then moves on to the Recuperator.
- The Recuperator heats process air, while cooling the syngas. Some process air is used in gasification, but most is used to produce steam in a combined cycle.
- Formation of dioxins and furans is prevented by ensuring there is no oxygen in the syngas and it is rapidly cooled in the Recuperator and subsequent water quench before passing on to the GQCS (not shown). There is no need to depend on a gas cleaning system to prevent dioxins and furans – the process does not make any!
Process Highlights of Plasco ICARS